Week eight

Workbook activities

Presentation draft

Preparation

The preparation of writing a successful formal speech should not be underestimated.  It requires preparation, research, writing, review, rehearsal, and delivery (Ames 2016) to successfully maintain the audience’s attention and communicate the message. All these steps were crucial and taken in to consideration while planning assignment three, the Member of Parliament’s maiden speech.

A public communication message should be arranged into four parts: introduction, central idea, body, and conclusion (Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin 1998 p.327). This proved to be a good base to start my speech and to establish what the main talking points would be.

I next moved on to the arrangement and formatting methods of my speech. Topical arrangement proved to a close guide to follow as the ideas for the speech can be organized on the basis of their similarities ((Berko, Wolvin, & Wolvin 1998 p.336). The speech contains two issues and even though they are not directly related they are politically oriented and the two key speaking points for the MP.

After much research, I settled on the case formatting method as it focuses on the central idea (the MP’s induction to the Legislative Assembly) and body (two main issues).  There is no need for sub-points, which is required by the unfolding method, as it is a maiden speech. The maiden speech is made to primarily to introduce the MP, thank those involved during the campaign and confirm the issues of main concern in the MP’s electorate.  It is not a talking point speech to raise a specific issue.

Planning table

Slide Talking point / script
Visual – Aboriginal and Australian flags

 

Acknowledgement of traditional land owners

 

Visual – Mirani Electorate map

 

Proud to be the first female MP for the Mirani Electorate

What the Electorate means me to

The importance of the Mirani Electorate

 

Visual – Picture of me with my niece

 

Introduce family and rhetoric link

Thanks to family, friends and colleagues

Rhetoric link sister’s child with developmental delays

 

Visual – Dept of Education, Training and Employment logo

 

Early Childhood Development Programs (ECDPs)

Facts of ECDPs

Importance to children and families

Repercussions if ECDPs end

 

Visual – FIFO workers FIFO workforce issue in Mirani Electorate

Facts and statistics of FIFO workforce

Impact and implications for families and communities

Recommendation

 

TBA Conclusion detailing recap of introduction and issues

 

TBA Restatement detailing commitment to Mirani Electorate and Legislative Assembly

Inspirational quote.

Draft speech presentation

Reflection

During this activity I discovered a process that I have always done with assignments but never realised there was a technical term for it. Mind mapping comprises a network of connected and related concepts.  It is free-form, spontaneous thinking that is required when creating a mind map, and the aim of mind mapping is to find creative associations between ideas (Davies 2011).  I found this activity particularly difficult to comprehend in the beginning but once I separated the different parts I began mind mapping ideas to make each step easier.

Learning the methods of arrangement and formatting, as explained by Berko (1998), has helped me to structure the final assignment more confidently as I can now see how the speech will fall in to place.  Before reading about these methods, I felt quite overwhelmed by the speech writing process and how I was going to convey my key messages.

Even though the slideshow is a good visual concept, I didn’t find it helped with the actual speech writing process.  The preparation stage and planning table were adequate enough for me to complete the activity and organise my ideas for the assignment.

 

References

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033 speech and script term 1 2016, lesson 6: Genres of speech – corporate, CQUniversity, Brisbane.

Berko R., Wolvin, A., & Wolvin, D. (eds.), 1998, Communication : a social and career focus, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, pp. 326-353, URL: http://library-resources.cqu.edu.au/cro/protected/comm12033/comm12033_cro2368.pdf

Davies, M 2011, ‘Concept mapping, mind mapping and argument mapping: what are the differences and do they matter?’, Higher Education, 62, 3, pp. 279-301, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 7 May 2016.

 

 

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Week seven

Workbook activities

Today Show – A shark, a duck and an awkward interview  (2011)

The Today Show on Channel 9, featuring hosts Karl Stefanovic and Lisa Wilkinson, is a breakfast television show which typically reports the news, weather, sport and interviews guests on various topics.

The video above intends to cover a story about a bull shark that is inhabiting Evandale Lake at the Gold Coast. Stefanovic gives the background of the story, which has a lighthearted side side to it, and goes on to introduce the reporter in the story, Paul Burt.  The two exchange comedic banter and personal humour, which is evident of Tolson’s argument that chat-based programming is oriented toward the personal, it features wit and humour (1991).  Additionally, the report is quite the opposite of what you would expect in a typical investigative journalism news story, which extracts, reveals and presents such news people try to conceal (Singh 2014). Burt then begins to report the facts of the story and what the council are doing to solve the issue with the bull shark. However, the news story takes an awkward turn when Burt mistakenly hooks a duck while casting his fishing line.  As expected, there is laughter and comedic comments but also a ‘damage control’ sense as the interview is cut short and returns to the news studio.  This is reflective of Tolson’s statement that the risk of transgression underlies talk (1991).

Being a television host is not just about performing and engaging with an audience, it requires a lot of skill and experience in the journalism field. To be a good host, you need to be an experienced media performer generally, and you need to be prepared and knowledgeable about what’s coming ahead in the program (Ames 2016). The video reflects this statement where the hosts took control of the controversial situation and kept continuing with the show. Successful hosts need to be able to think on their feet and have a quick wit to restore any mishaps or unexpected situations that may occur during, sometimes, live broadcasts.

 

Piece to camera

PTC video

This was a very uncomfortable activity for me to do.  I’m not a person who likes being the centre of attention and I really don’t have any aspirations to be a news journalist but it was helpful to learn another aspect of being a professional communicator.

I practiced quite a lot at what I was going to say, how I was going to say the report and my body movements.  It was my first time completing a PTC report so I’m hoping it has been received ok.

Oliver (2016) states that the piece to camera, or PTC is that part of the report where the reporter can be seen talking to the viewer about all sorts of things, hopefully relevant to the story. Whenever I have watched a  PTC report on television it’s usually about some dramatic event unfolding or which has just occurred.

In contrast, my PTC report was about the battle I have with my children with keeping their toys in their own living area.  I was thinking of going to another location to talk about something more interesting, however, toys are a familiar subject to me and my husband filmed this at night after my children had gone to bed. It was quiet and had good lighting so it seemed an ideal choice to do the PTC.

 

Clayman ‘From talk to text: newspaper accounts of reporter-source interactions’ summary (1990)

Clayman aims to determine what makes a questions quotable, and to specify the impact that quoted questions have on the sense and import of subsequent political speech.

For newswriters, any particular linguistic choice may be guided, not by ideological factors, but by more local concerns internal to the development of the narrative. Such choices are also analysed and interpreted by audience numbers in the light of their location within the surrounding discourse. It is well-established principle that the meaning of verbal, gestural and other communicative displays depends upon the contexts in which they are used.

Newspaper and television news stories regularly contain verbatim or paraphrased statements for a variety of sources and may are culled from interactional situations with interviews, press conferences, public speeches and congressional hearings being examples. In accounts of political speeches newspaper and television coverage frequently included some reference to audience responses to it. By preserving aspects of the local interactional context, a given statement is presented as an action produced within an ongoing course of social interaction. The assumpton that an adequate understanding of how texts are produced and responded to may remain elusive so long as the issue is pursued without making close comparative reference to how talk works.

During talk, interviews and press conferences, news reporters often quote sources with the answers and not the questions asked. Questions are unique in their power to define adjacent statements as actions produced in interaction with others; a variety of more specific meanings can this be conveyed as consequence. While quoted questions show that the general topic was imposed externally, the source’s statements may nevertheless be transparently self-interested in character.

Audiences can relate and interpret answers to questions on how they are conveyed.  Answers may come in the form of prompt or delayed, confirmatory or rejecting. For prompt or delayed answers, agreements are regularly produced directly and without delay, while disagreements tend to be delayed by various intervening items, including pauses preceding their delivery. With regards to confirmatory or rejecting, some questions, particularly of the yes/no variety, have propositions embedded within them, which the recipient is asked to confirm or reject. Confirmatory instances reveal the source may take the reporter’s version further by intensifying or upgrading it. In contrast, a rejected proposal can put forth assertions that the source must negate or rebut in order to develop his or her point.

Reporters’ questions also figure prominently in accounts of non-answers. Non-answers appear with great frequency in accounts of interviews and press conferences. In the context of a particular line of questioning, a non-answer can suggestive regarding the source’s motives for withholding information. News reporters may state that the source ‘refused’ or ‘declined’ to comment on the inquired-about matter without actually reproducing the declination as it was spoken.

Many quotation sequences examined show the source to be some way resisting a line of questioning. Declining to answer or rejecting what it proposes, or initially evading what it seeks, are common varieties of resistance. This may explain why presidential press conferences and other high-level briefings continue to be of such interest to reporters and audiences alike.

In contemporary political life, what people say is assessed and evaluated in the light of how they say it.

 

References

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033 speech and script term 1 2016, lesson 6: Genres of speech – corporate, CQUniversity, Brisbane.

Clayman, S 1990, ‘From talk to text: newspaper accounts of reporter-source interactions’, Media Culture & Society, vol. 12, pp. 79-103.

IWakeUpWithTODAY 2011, A shark, a duck and an awkward interview, Youtube, viewed 27 March 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FzmAEQzZJ5Q.

Singh, S 2014, ‘International journal of multidisciplinary approach & studies’, An Analytical Study of Move from Traditional Journalism to Investigative Journalism, Vol. 1 Issue 4, p353-360.

Tolson, A 1991, ‘Televised chat and the synthetic personality’, in Broadcast Talk, ed P. Scannell, Sage Publications, London, pp. 178–200.

 

 

 

Week six

Workbook activities

 PAIBOC use for assignment 3

I will be employed as a media advisor for the state MP of the Mirani Electorate.

Purpose:  The purpose of the maiden speech is to acknowledge the audience and reassure them the MP’s commitment to representing the Electorate.  Fly-in fly out (FIFO) workforce and the proposed end to Early Childhood Development Programs (ECDPs) are the two main issues in central Queensland that will feature in the speech.

Audience: The audience will be fellow members, constituents and the media.

Information: The need for change on 100% FIFO workforce in central Queensland resource communities is relevant as it represents employment and prosperity in the small mining communities which have suffered over the last 5 years due to increased FIFO workforces. The federally introduced National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) has been a real concern in the central Queensland region and a lot of families don’t want it to replace the current ECDPs. ECDPs provide children, with disabilities and developmental delays, the essential skills and help prepare them for mainstream school.

Benefits:  The benefits of delivering a successful maiden speech will maintain the confidence of constituents and fellow members and, ultimately, retain the relevant member’s position.

Objections: Constituents will have their own opinions and beliefs on the issues that will be discussed. FIFO has pros ie. spreading the wealth and skills set within the state and cons employment and prosperity within central Queensland communities has dropped considerably.  I am anti-FIFO so I will defend any objections against that.  ECDPs provided by the state government are critical to a child’s development and should remain how they currently stand.

Context:  The beliefs held for the issues are political but also personal as they directly affect me and my family.

 

Differences and similarities of formal and informal speech

Knowing the difference and similarities of formal and informal speech is important as each has its own methods of preparation, content and delivery.

Performing a formal speech can quite daunting. The purpose of the formal speech is to inform, to persuade, to entertain, to stimulate action or further interest in a topic of community concern (2003).  Adequate preparation of a formal speech will see the orator feeling more confident about the subject, with a better chance of a successful outcome. I am currently working on a formal speech for the MP I work for. He intends to perform this speech in parliament so I will need ensure he is familiar with the subject and its purpose.

The content of formal and informal speeches are usually quite different. Formal speeches are given for a purpose and an outcome.  An MP may rise and take the floor to introduce an important issue that requires the government’s attention. The content of the speech would include background, facts and a solution to support the MP’s argument. Whereas an informal speech generally happens in conversation. In a corporate setting, all talk is potentially for an overhearing audience, so in a sense, while conversation may appear to be informal, it actually has the potential to have more formal consequences (Ames, 2016 pg.5).

The delivery of a formal speech must reflect its subject and genre . A presentation is a type of formal speech and must be delivered effectively to maintain the audience’s attention. By memorising the introduction, maintaining the audience’s eye contact and breathing deeply (Cipolla 2016), the orator will increase the chances of a successful presentation. An informal speech does require preparation and delivery but not in the same context as a formal speech. An informal speech is speech that may be impromptu, improvised, or deliberately casual or lighthearted (Ames 2016, p.4). An informal speech could be a phone call or a conversation between work colleagues. Both are casual speech but still need to be thought out to ensure communication lines are clear.

Reflection of week 6 voice recording

This week my voice sounds quite ‘whispery’ in place. I’ve had a cold the past couple of weeks so this may be the cause. I still need to slow down and breath more to ensure I’m understood clearly. I also need to speak louder and deeper to get my point across more confidently.

References

Ames, K 2016, COMM12033 speech and script term 1 2016, lesson 6: Genres of speech – corporate, CQUniversity, Brisbane.

University of Illinois 2003, Communications Guide, viewed 24 April 2016, https://web.extension.illinois.edu/jsw/downloads/27058.pdf.

Cipolla, R 2016, How to prepare and deliver a presentation, viewed 24 April 2016, http://mi.eng.cam.ac.uk/~cipolla/archive/Presentations/MakingPresentations.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Week five

Workbook activities

Notice talk

When it comes to talk, I am aware of how to speak on social terms and on professional terms.  I have a lot of work experience and find it easy distinguish when it’s appropriate to use social talk or institutional talk.  I have also found that, with experience, I can easily judge a person’s personality or how a conversation will flow by taking note of their talk skills early in a meeting.

In a work environment, I always greet people and ask how they are.  It’s not only polite but creates a professional atmosphere. I work for a state MP and engage with the public on a daily basis. The conversation would go as follows:

Constituent: Hello, I’m John Smith.

Me: Hi John, how are you?

Constituent: Yeah I’m alright

Me: That’s good. How can I help you today?

To sign off from another conversation, I would say:

Me: That’s great. Thanks for your help today.

Parliament contact: That’s ok.

Me: Bye and have a good weekend.

When dealing with awkward or uncomfortable moments, I find asking a question rather than using humour helps the conversation get back on track. In a professional environment, I often ask how they’re day has been or if they have a busy week coming up.  I find using humour more appropriate if I’m familiar with a person and they’re personality.

I find it important to use institutional talk when appropriate. Any form of casual talk, swearing or gossip in a professional setting (work, appointments, ceremonies) is inappropriate. However, institutional talk can occur anywhere, and by the same token, ordinary conversation can emerge in in almost any institutional context (Heritage, 2005). It’s all about knowing that right moment and situation.

 

Consider institutional talk in detail

Political interview – Laurie Oakes and John Howard 2011 -John https://pmtranscripts.dpmc.gov.au/release/transcript-11771

Entertainment interview – Richard Wilkins and Ed Sheeran

a. How was the interviewee introduced?

Oakes interview:  Very formal introduction. Oakes: Mr Howard, welcome to Sunday.

Wilkins interview: Very casual introduction. Wilkins: Ed Sheeran how are you doing?

b. What types of questions were asked?

Oakes interview:  Politically orientated questions. Example: Now how surprised were you by the West Australian result?

Wilkins interview: Questions about his short but successful career. Example: You couldn’t have wished for a better kick start to your career, could you?

c. How was the potential for conflict managed (if any)?

Oakes interview: Oakes actually pushes for confrontation and reaction in the interview with Howard. Example: You mention Peter Beattie, the polls suggest that the Queensland election next Saturday will bring more bad news for the Coalition. Have you steeled yourself for that?

Wilkins interview:

d. Was humour evident, and how?

Oakes interview: No humor evident, very serious.

Wilkins interview: There was a lot of humour about his career and personal life. It was also quite awkward in parts on Wilkins’ behalf.

e. How did the interview conclude?

Oakes interview: Interview ends abruptly and formally. Example: Prime Minister, we’re out of time. We thank you.

Wilkins interview: Mate, what a lovely guy you are. It was lovely to chat to you.

f. What were the differences, if any, between the types of interview?

There were no casual talk and friendly banter in the Oakes interview. It was all institutional talk the whole way through the interview. Whereas, the Wilkins interview was very casual, was structured like he and Sheeran were friends and had quite a lot of humor.

 

Interaction en Masse: Audiences and Speeches

Identifying the key point for speech writing

Performing an effective speech and successfully engaging with their audience are the main goals of an orator.  The political orator relies on the response of their audience to gauge the effectiveness of the speech and, ultimately, their popularity.

Writing an effective speech is structured with coordination and format. By using rhetorical language of incorporating contrasts and lists in a speech, the audience can easily identify the key points of the politician’s  argument or statement.  Generating applause using a three stage rocket is also an effective method of speech writing as it uses predictable persuasion to gain a positive response from an audience.

With contrasts,  in its most basic form, a negative statement is counterbalanced by a positive one (Hertiage and Clayman 2010 p.267). Contrasts are used by politicians to establish a negative point (often at the expense of an opponent) and then a positive point to boast their own side of the argument.  Heritage and Clayman (2010) mention contradictions, comparisons, opposites and phrase reversals are all common types of contrasting which are used for effective speeches. In an example, John F. Kennedy used phase reversal in a now infamous speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country”.  It was a patriotic and grounding statement that the audience reacted well to.

Lists are effective in speeches as they emphasis and project the intended message to the audience in a simple format.  Heritage and Clayman (2010) suggest that three-part lists are also frequent in speeches, where they combine emphasis (by repetition) and the projectability that arises from the norm of response on the third item.  An accurate example of a three-part list is performed by former British Prim Minister Margaret Thatcher: “At a time of growing danger for all who cherish and believe in freedom this party of the soft centre is (1) no shield, (2) no refuge and (3) no answer (Hertiage and Clayman 2010 p.270). Thatcher’s statement was effective as it accentuated the incompetence of the opposition and the audience reacted well to it.

A combination of contrasts and lists is also a popular and effective format to gain a positive reaction from an audience.  Heritage and Clayman (2010) claim that the combination of contrasts and lists may help to shed light on the significance of the number three in lists of all sorts. As an example, many children’s stories use a three part list/contrast format, ie. Goldilocks and the Three Bears.  With politcial speeches, where combination formats were used, applause was fives more likely than speeches with  unformatted political claims (Hertiage and Clayman 2010 p.273) .

Another format Heritage and Clayman (2010) discusses it how to generate applause using a the three stage rocket. Politicians can use this format to effectively steer the audience the to applause by way of predictable persuasion. First there is the argument structure in which positions are staked out – often against those of opponents. Second, and within that structure, there is a level at which particular points are made and are rhetorically structured to build towards a specific slot. Finally, there is a micro-structural level of intonation, rhythm, timing, and gesture which guides the audience towards an exact opening in the talk where response can be initiated. Great speakers link all three of these levels into a seamless structure of argumentation (Hertiage and Clayman 2010 p.275) .

 

References

Heritage, J 2005, Conversation Analysis and Institutional Talk, University of California, Los Angeles, viewed 3 April 2016,  http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/faculty/heritage/Site/Publications_files/CA%20and%20INSTITUTIONAL%20TALK_LSI.pdf.

Heritage, J and Clayman, S 2010 Talk in Action: Interactions, Identities, and Institutions, Wiley- Blackwell, West Sussex, pp. 263-287.

PM Transcripts 2001, Interview on Sunday programme with Laurie Oakes, network nine ,’PM ranscripts: transcripts from the prime ministers of Australia’, viewed 5 April 2016, https://pmtranscripts.dpmc.gov.au/release/transcript-11771.

Today 2014, Richard Wilkins interviews Ed Sheeran, ‘YouTube’, viewed 5 April 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUQkJ8TgGIs.

 

 

 

 

Week four

Workbook activities

Re-recording of news script

Reflection of news recording

My second recording of the SBS News script has improved.  This week, I practiced and recorded my script a few times to get the technical aspects of my speech correct. Articulation is one of the important aspects I wanted to work on.  Ames (2016) explains that clarity is all important and derives from clear enunciation of the sounds that comprise words. By practicing, breathing and opening my mouth more I found my pronunciation has improved since my first recording. Another aspect I wanted to work on was volume and projection.  Volume is easy; you can speak more loudly or more softly. Projection needs training; it is the control of breathing to “cast” your voice (Ames 2016 p. 4). I did some breathing and counting exercises that aims to improve projection and I found my voice could be heard better.

I still find I need to breath more and lower my voice but this recording is an improvement on week one’s recording.

Movie – In a World

The main character, Carol, plays a freelance voice-over coach struggling to gain work. With regards to performance, during recordings I noticed that Carol gets ‘in the zone’ and becomes calm and focused. Ames (2016) explains that clarity is all important and derives from clear enunciation of the sounds that comprise words.  Carol demonstrates her articulation well as she begins by lowering her voice and says her speech slowly and with intent. I noticed the other characters also were quite expressive with their faces and hand movements. Even though it is voice over and their movements can’t be seen in the movie trailer, the enthusiasm or drama can be felt through their voice. Carol was often recording foreigners speech so their accents could be used for a later purpose.  This method showed the importance of technique.  Using a foreign accent can be difficult but for Carol to master the dialect, she needed to practice the vowels.

Techniques to alter the voice is important in speech training to ensure a successful performance. Cottrell (2015) states that  vocal mechanism mostly consists of muscles, and while there may be some natural variation in size and shape from one person to another, these vocal muscles can be developed.  In preparation for voice-overs, the characters warmed up their muscles with lip blowing, exaggerated sounds, opening the mouth and relaxing their faces. At one point, Carol also had an actress place a cork in her mouth to assist with vowel and accent pronunciation.

All the techniques mentioned above have a positive impact on the result of the character’s speech performance. The exercises performed before a voice-over relax the voice and prepare the larynx for a better sound.  According to Carol (2013), a good voice has perfect tone and a strong sound.  By exercising and practicing voice techniques, the outcome a is stronger and more confident performance.

 

References

Ames, K 2016, ‘Lesson 4 – Performance,’ COMM12033 Speech and Script, CQUniversity, Brisbane, viewed 31 March 2016,  https://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/293232/mod_resource/content/6/COMM12033_Week4_Mod.pdf.

Cottrell, D 2015, ‘On the voice’, Choral Journal, Vol 56, No.3, p. 73.

In a World 2013, motion picture, Stage 6 Films, Distributed roadside Attractions, and starring Lake Bell.

Week three

Workbook activities

Rhetoric argument

 

Review of rhetoric argument

The video In Defense of Rhetoric: No Longer Just for Liars (2011) discusses the term rhetoric and defends its use in modern society.

ClemsonEnglish (2011) explains the term rhetoric as ‘the study of the technique of using language effectively’ and describes its use as an ancient art which has survived as an academic discipline in the modern university. Rhetoric speech is used is used as an advantage in political speech and one of its great users is Barack Obama.

Another term explains rhetoric as breaking down components of language and argument and how to persuade and make arguments (2011). This is done by using facts and knowledge that produces true data. When explaining how rhetoric works, a good argument ClemsonEnglish brings up is that as communication methods evolve to fit new media, university students are challenged to communicate effectively in the fast paced global village.  This is an accurate representation of how communications students or professional communicators can become overwhelmed by the amount of communication methods available.

Epistemic rhetoric is also discussed as a means of adjudication between knowledge of claims (2011). This is good point as it highlights the need for rhetoric when acquiring knowledge and facts for an argument.

 

Summary of ‘Rhetoric by Aristotle’ (Aristotle 350 BCE)

Book 1

Rhetoric

Rhetorical study is concerned with modes of persuasion.  Likened to a demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when consider things to have been demonstrated. The orator’s demonstration is an enthymeme which is the most effective mode of persuasion. Enthymeme is a sort of syllogism which is the business of dialectic.

Rhetoric not just to succeed in persuading but able to arrive as near as possible to success as each situation allows.

Rhetoric speech persuasion:

  • Achieved by speaker’s personal credible character
  • When speech stirs emotions
  • When a truth has been proven through persuasion

How rhetoric is useful:

  • Things that are true and things are just have a natural tendency to prevails over their opposites.
  • An argument based on knowledge implies instruction but not everyone is able to take instructions.  Therefore, we must use our modes of persuasion and argument to instruct.
  • We must be able to employ persuasion on opposite sides of a question to see what the facts are and can confute unfair arguments.
  • No other art draws opposite conclusions: dialectic and rhetoric alone do this.
  • Man should be able to defend himself with speech and reason.
  • Rhetoric can see man confer great benefits by a right use but also inflict injury by using it wrongly.

Dialectic in speech

Dialectic – The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments (The Free Dictionary 2016).

Rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic. Whether to defend or attack others, at random or through practice, the subject can plainly be handled systematically, for it is possible to inquire the reason why some speakers succeed through practice and others spontaneously. It is the function of an art.

Neither rhetoric nor dialectic is the scientific study of any one separate subject: both are faculties for providing arguments. This is perhaps a sufficient account of their scope and of how they are related to each other. certain propositions being true, a further and quite distinct proposition must also be true in consequence, whether invariably or usually, this is called syllogism in dialectic, enthymeme in rhetoric.

Syllogism in speech

Syllogism – Reasoning from the general to the specific (The Free Dictionary 2016)

Every one who proves anything at all is bound to use either syllogisms or inductions. Dialectic does not construct its syllogisms out of any haphazard materials but out of materials that call for discussion.  It is possible to form syllogisms and draw conclusions from the results of previous syllogisms.

Enthymeme in speech

Enthymeme -A syllogism in which one of the premises or the conclusion is not stated explicitly (The Free Dictionary 2016)

Speeches that rely on examples are as persuasive as the other kind, but those which rely on enthymemes excite the louder applause. The enthymeme and the example must deal with what is in the main contingent, the example being an induction, and the enthymeme a syllogism, about such matters. In speech, the materials of enthymemese are probabilities and signs, which must correspond respectively with the propositions that generally and those that necessarily true.

Example: where there’s smoke, there’s fire. The hidden premise: The smoke causes fire. (Literary Devices 2016)

Every one who effects persuasion through proof does in fact use either enthymemes or examples: there is no other way.  The difference between example and enthymeme is made plain by the passages in the topics where induction and syllogism have already been discussed.

Book 2

How character, emotions and frame of mind effects speech

An orator’s character is important in political speech and he should always be in the right frame of mind. Three character attributes inspire confidence for an orator: good sense, good moral character and goodwill.  If a speech is adapted and reflected to an orator’s character, audience’s react well.

Emotions that effect an orator are: anger, calmness, friendship and enmity, fear, shame, kindness, pity, indignation and envy, emulation.

Persuasive argument 

A persuasive argument is often driven and connected to emotions and the use of persuasive speech leads an audience to decisions.  All orators us a topic and try to argue something that has happened or will happen in the future. Possibility of the future is particularly associated with political speech. ‘Fables’ are often used to quote the past and orators often use them in political speech to explain what will happen in the future. When using examples for persuasive speech, using a number of examples in the beginning and just one at the end will be sufficient.

Maxims in speech

A maxim is a statement used in argument for speech and generally used by those with considerable experience.  There are four kinds of maxims. Maxims produce a general declaration of moral principles and the orator will be seen as a man of moral character.

Refutes in argumentative speech

Refutes are used to argue an opponents by noting contrast or contradictions where it may be applicable. They can used by a counter-syllogism or by bringing an objection. Objections can raised in four ways: attacking an opponent’s statement, putting forward another statement, putting forward a statement contrary to it or quoting previous decisions.

Book 3

 

 

References

Aristotle 350 BCE (translation by  w. Rhys Roberts). Rhetoric, ebook, Classics MIT, Internet Classics Archive, viewed 16 March, 2016 http://classics.mit.edu//Aristotle/rhetoric.html

ClemsonEnglish 2011, ‘In defense of rhetoric video’, YouTube, viewed 24 March 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYMUCz9bHAs&feature=youtu.be&hd=1

Literary Devices 2016,’ Literary devices – enthymeme’, Literary Devices, viewed 31 March 2016, http://literarydevices.net/enthymeme/

The Free Dictionery 2016, ‘The free dictionary – dialectic’, The Free Dictionary, viewed 28 March 2016, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/dialectic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Week two

Optional activities

Joy Damousi – ‘There is nothing wrong with Australian speech’

Unaware of the concerns ABC radio held regarding their broadcast speech during the 1940s, I found it interesting to read the arguments of Australian speech on our radio.  Mitchell (Damousi, 2016) argued for tolerance when confronted with differences of language and accent . ‘Question a man’s pronunciation of a word and you may touch him as nearly as if you doubted his moral integrity. Differences in political opinion are often more readily tolerated than differences in pronunciation’ (Damousi, 2016). Mitchell wanted all types of Australian speech to be accepted and discouraged the accent prejudice that existed in England. However, others expressed opinions in favour of the traditional English accent. ‘National arrogance and conceit can go no further than to claim that an untrained Australian voice is superior to that which results from study and hard work…Please do not degrade the cultural level of ABC announcers (Damousi, 2016).’ Clearly, during this time, there were still those who still held our Sovereign State in a higher regard than our own.

‘Convict creations’ critical review

In general, I found this article to be interesting but, in some parts, quite ridiculous.  The discussion on diminutives regarding how Australians use a shortened form of a particular word, ie. arvo for afternoon, was baseless. The author suggests that perhaps an explanation for their (diminutives) creation in Australia is that they harmonise many of the sharper English words with the smoother Aboriginal words that are common in the place naming of rural Australia, ie. Ulladulla or coolabah (2016). I don’t agree and feel diminutives reflect our laid back and casual culture.

Nick Vujicic reflection

Fletcher Dean (2011) suggests that the five steps to being a successful speech writer are: begin by focusing on the audience, solve the audience’s needs, give your speech structure, don’t rely on PowerPoint presentations and to add style to your speech. Nick Vujicic has a vibrant speech style and is well received by his audience. Vujicic (2011) opens his speech enthusiastically by asking the audience with “How you doing? You all fine? Nice to see you!” With this approach he instantly engages with the audience.  Secondly, Dean (2011) suggests to solve the audience’s needs. In Vujicic’s case, his appearance may intrigue the students so he very quickly jumps to the obvious: his wheelchair and the fact he was born without limbs. He gives a detailed description of his wheelchair and shows what he can do with foot and puts the audience at ease. He also doesn’t rely on PowerPoint or any other form of presentation to aid his speech, he maintains the audience’s attention at all times through his speech style.  Lastly, Vujicic has a charismatic and original character.  He is able to convey his message through speech by being real and approachable to the students.

Race speeches

The speeches by President Barack Obama and Dr Martin Luther King were both regarding race discrimination to African American people but they were delivered in completely context.  Obama speaks with a very sympathetic and subdued voice to create a mood and draw in his audience. Whereas King speaks with an inspirational and almost theatrical voice to keep his audience’s attention.  Obama is subjective in his views on racism and doesn’t directly blame or place the responsibility of racism on anyone. However, King gives detailed facts of racism in different states of America and the effects of it.  Both do give parts of their speech structure by giving timelines of events and evidence of racism.  I found Obama’s speech to very personal for himself as he mentions his own personal experiences of racism.  I felt King was speaking more about the African American community and binding together as a unit rather than focus on himself at any point.  Both also clearly emphasis certain words to get their point across. For Obama it was racism, laws and me. King emphasised racism, together and freedom.

In my personal opinion, I found Obama’s speech to be more effective in receiving his intended message of racism in America. His subdued voice, evidence of personal experiences, advice on potential changes and how he ends his speech on a positive note to be more engaging.

35 greatest speeches

Of the 35, I had heard of all but 11.  After reading samples of the speeches, I personally liked Winston Churchill’s defiant style, Ronald Reagan’s honesty and compassion and William Faulkner’s optimism.

Educating Yorkshire

I have seen Musharraf on another program which detailed the struggles and treatment of people with stammers.  It was emotional to watch not just Musharraf but others who have struggled all their lives or after an incident that caused their speech impediment.  I can personally relate with this video and these people as I have a 4 year old daughter who is overcoming a stammer.  Even though she is confident and has a great vocabulary, it is heartbreaking to see her struggle with her speech. We have gone through speech therapy and continue to work with her to help her overcome her impediment.

 

Workbook Activities

Definition of professional voice

In my opinion, professional voice is defined by how an individual tactfully delivers their speech in context, more so than content. A professional voice can turn the most mundane topic in to an enthralling speech that engages an audience and maintains their attention.   Great speakers such as Barack Obama and Martin Luther King are and were great speakers of their time.  Both have great presence and possess a charismatic speech style that accentuates their professional voice. Obama’s professional voice can be compared to lyrics. Liberman (2008) explains there’s a certain amount of repetition — the ‘Yes We Can’ theme — that allows this kind of weaving of vocal lines. But if that’s right, then what’s really musical about that speech was not so much its delivery, but its composition. It was written like a song, but not performed like a song. King’s professional voice was inspirational and theatrical.He engages his audience with movement, raises and lowers his voice and it flows like a performance. Both Obama and King, as orators, possessed a professional voice that successfully delivered powerful messages.

What makes a great speech?

A great speech can make or break an orator. In times of crisis and catastrophe, a great speech can unit a nation. I agree with Dean (2012) who describes five steps to a successful speech; begin by focusing on the audience, solve the audience’s needs, give the speech structure, don’t rely on PowerPoint presentations and add style to the speech. These steps are followed by many, including Barack Obama. Obama is one of the great orators of our time. Greene (2011) explains that he uses all “4 Languages” of human communication to deliver his best speeches.  He has the ability to excite an audience with energy, (“Visual Language”), give them a compelling story line to follow (“Auditory Language”), rest their anxieties as you show an unshakable grasp of the facts, details and nuances, (“Auditory Digital Language”) and, most importantly, to connect with, touch, move and inspire one’s audience, (“Kinesthetic Language”) (2011).

Record emphasis in professional news reading

During Kate Stowell’s recorded news script, I noticed that she often emphasised the first word of the paragraph but not always.  There wasn’t a consistent  pattern where Stowell emphasised words but in some places it was every 3 to 4 words. For example, the following indicates the words which were emphasised:

“Australia finally has a Federal government after seventeen days of negotiations with the three independent regional MPs. Labor will continue to govern the nation for the next three years after two of the three independents agreed to support a Labor government”.

Stowell would emphasis the first names of the politicians mentions and her tone would decrease towards the end of the paragraph.

In comparison, my recorded news script did not have as consistent rhythm and pattern. In some places I did emphasis important words, such as “govern” and “best interests”. Also, similar to Stowell, I emphasised the first word of the paragraph and first names of the politicians. Probably the most apparent feature I was lacking was a strong speech voice like Stowell.

 

References

Dean, F. 2012, ‘5 steps to a successful speech’, Speechwriting 2.0, [blog],viewed 15 March 2016, http://thespeechwriter.typepad.com/onspeechwriting/2011/12/5-steps-to-asuccessful-speech-part-1.html

Frenkel. D 2011, ‘Public speaking 101: A lesson in leadership from Obama’, The Drum, viewed 18 March 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-11-16/frenkel-public-speaking-101-a-lesson-in-leadership-from-obama/3674660

Greene R. 2011, ‘Obama is America’s third greatest presidential orator in modern era’, Huffpost Politics,viewed 18 March 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-greene/obama-is-americas-3rd-gre_b_813868.html

Liberman M. 2008, ‘What makes Obama a good speaker’, Observer: News and PoliticsFarrar Strauss and Giroux, New York, viewed 17/03/16, https://penusa.org/sites/default/files/didion.pdf